## Syllabus for MS Comprehensive Viva-voce

The MS comprehensive viva-voce will test the student's competency in:

• Six basic areas of CSE, and
• Specific subjects the student has undertaken during his/her studies for the MS degree.
The six basic areas tested and their syllabus are given below. The syllabus for the subjects taken by the students will follow the published syllabus of the individual subjects.

## A. Discrete Mathematics

Proof Techniques
Direct proofs, proof by contraposition, proof by contradiction, proof by cases, existence proofs, Proofs by mathematical induction.

Sets
Subsets, set equality, set operations: complement, union, intersection, set difference, Powersets.

Functions
injective, surjective, bijective functions, Composition of functions, Inverse of a function.

Relations
Relations and their properties, Equivalence relations, Partial Orderings.

Combinatorics
Counting, Principle of inclusion-exclusion, Pigeonhole principle, Permutations and Combinations.

Recurrence Relations
Linear recurrence relations, divide and conquer recurrence relations.

Probability
Discrete probability, Probability of combinations of events, Conditional probability, Independence, Bayes Theorem, Expected values.

Graph Theory
Basic terminologies, degree, connected components, trees.

## B. Algorithms

Introduction
The order notations, worst-case and average-case performance of algorithms, notions of lower bounds on problem complexity and optimality of algorithms.

Data structures
Stacks, queues, trees, graphs, binary search trees, height balancing -- red-black trees, heaps and priority queues, hash tables.

Searching and sorting
Linear and binary search. Bubble sort, insertion sort, selection sort, merge sort, quick sort, heap sort, counting sort.

Algorithm design techniques
Divide-and-conquer, greedy and dynamic-programming algorithms. Lower bounds and optimal algorithms.

Graph algorithms
Preorder, inorder and postorder traversal of trees, BFS and DFS, topological sort. Minimum spanning trees (Kruskal's and Prim's algorithms), Shortest path (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshal) algorithms.

NP-completeness
The complexity classes P and NP, polynomial-time reductions, NP-Hard and NP-Complete problems.

## C. Formal Languages and Automata Theory

Introduction
Alphabets, Strings, Languages, Grammars and Recognizers, Decision problems over languages.

Regular Languages and Finite Automata
Regular languages (RLs), Regular Grammars and Regular Expressions, DFAs, NFAs and their equivalence with Regular Grammars and Regular Expressions, Converting NFA to DFA, Proving Languages not to be Regular -- pumping lemma for RLs, Closure of RLs under Boolean operations.

Context-Free Languages and Pushdown Automata
Context-free languages and grammars, Parse trees, Ambiguities in Grammars and Languages, Pushdown Automata (PDAs).

Turing Machines
Basic machine, Universal Turing machine and notions of undecidability.

## D. Computer Organization and Architecture

Instruction set architecture
Instruction types, Instruction formats, addressing modes.

Arithmetic
Representation of fixed and floating-point numbers, 2's complement arithmetic.

Control unit
Organization of a CPU, control and data paths, micro-operations, register-transfer level specifications.

Memory system
Typical signal lines in a ROM and RAM, building memory subsystems using smaller modules. Concept of memory hierarchy, cache memory, cache performance, cache-main memory mapping.

Input-output systems
Programmed I/O, Interrupt-driven I/O, polling and vectored interrupt, basic concept of DMA transfer.

Pipelining
Basic concepts of pipeline.

## E. Operating Systems

Basic components of an operating system

Processes and Interprocess communication
Basic concepts, process state transition diagram, context switch, process synchronization problem, semaphores - definition and implementation.

Process scheduling
Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling, FCFS, SJF and round-robin scheduling.

Memory management
Logical and physical addresses, paging and virtual memory, page table, TLB.

Hardware requirements
Privileged mode and privileged instructions, handling of hardware and software interrupts.

## F. Programming

C programming
Datatypes, variables, assignment statements, iteration and control statements, arrays, structures, functions and recursion, pointers.

User-defined data types
Stack, queue, binary tree, binary search tree.

Representation of graphs